Object: The goal of this study was to evaluate the results of early surgical evacuation of "packed" intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
Methods: The authors performed surgery within 24 hours after onset of SAH, identified on neuroimaging as a cast distending the ventricular system, in 74 patients with poor-grade SAH (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grades IV and V) without intracerebral hemorrhage. Eighteen of these patients had packed IVH; in these patients the intraventricular clots were extensively evacuated via frontal corticotomy performed under microscopic view.
Conclusions: Overall, 42% of the 74 patients undergoing craniotomy in the acute stage had favorable outcomes, whereas 30% died. Using multivariate analysis, variables significantly associated with favorable outcome in patients with poor-grade SAH included absence of a packed intraventricular clot on computerized tomography scanning; absence of a history of cardiac disease; and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 11 or 12. None of the 18 patients who had packed IVH had favorable outcomes and seven of these died. In six recently treated patients with packed IVH, which was examined using fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging, extensive periventricular brain damage was found both immediately after surgery and during the chronic stage. Accordingly, the authors believe that irreversible periventricular brain damage is already complete immediately after packed IVH occurs.