The development of prostate cancer is dependent on heredity, androgenic influences, and exposure to environmental agents. A high intake of dietary fat is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, either through influence on steroid hormone profiles or through production of carcinogenic compounds that require biotransformation by enzymes. The polymorphic glutathione S-transferase (GST), N-acetyltransferase (NAT), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are of particular interest in prostate cancer susceptibility because of their ability to metabolize both endogenous and exogenous compounds, including dietary constituents. Association between different NAT2, CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and GSTP1 genotypes and prostate cancer was studied in a Swedish and Danish case-control study comprising 850 individuals. The combined Swedish and Danish study population was analysed by polymerase chain reaction for the NAT2 alleles *4, *5A, *5B, *5C, *6 and *7, and for the CYP2D6 alleles *l, *3 and *4. The Swedish subjects were also analysed for the CYP2C19 alleles *1 and *2, and the GSTP1 alleles *A, *B and *C. No association was found between prostate cancer and polymorphisms in NAT2, CYP2D6, CYP2C19 or GSTP1. An association between CYP2D6 poor metabolism and prostate cancer was seen among smoking Danes; odds ratio 3.10 (95% confidence interval 1.07; 8.93), P = 0.03, but not among smoking Swedes; odds ratio 1.19 (95% confidence interval 0.41; 3.42), P = 0.75. Smoking is not a known risk factor for prostate cancer, and the association between CYP2D6 poor metabolism and prostate cancer in Danish smokers may have arisen by chance.