Clara cell 10 kilodalton protein (CC10), the predominant product from nonciliated cells in the epithelial lining of bronchioles (Clara cells), has been shown to have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity, and may play roles in controlling inflammation in the airway. This study was designed to examine immunohistochemical expression of CC10 in epithelial cells in small airways (perimeter < 6 mm) of asthmatic and control nonsmokers who underwent lung resection because of peripheral lung carcinoma and to compare CC10-positive epithelial cell proportions with numbers of inflammatory cells in small airways of asthmatics. Significantly decreased proportions of CC10-positive epithelial cells and significantly increased numbers of T cells, activated eosinophils, and mast cells in small airways of asthmatics were found compared with those of control subjects. CC10-positive epithelial cell proportions inversely correlated with numbers of T cells and mast cells in small airways of asthmatics. Decreases of CC10-producing cells may give an accelerating cause for further aggravation of inflammatory responses in chronic asthma.