Sex and menstrual cycle differences in the subjective effects from smoked cocaine in humans

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999 Aug;7(3):274-83. doi: 10.1037//1064-1297.7.3.274.


To investigate sex and menstrual cycle effects in response to cocaine administration, data from existing studies were analyzed. First, responses to a single delivery of 0.4 mg/kg smoked cocaine were investigated. Women reported lower ratings for measures of paranoid/suspicious and heart racing/pounding than did men. In addition, women in the luteal phase reported diminished ratings for a measure of feel high than did both women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and men. Second, responses to up to 6 deliveries of 0.4 mg/kg smoked cocaine were investigated. Women, compared with men, had lower ratings on feel high, heart racing/pounding, and feel stimulated. Results suggest that there are significant sex and menstrual phase differences in the subjective effects of cocaine.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / chemically induced
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / physiopathology
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Cocaine / administration & dosage
  • Cocaine / adverse effects
  • Cocaine / pharmacology*
  • Cocaine-Related Disorders / psychology
  • Crack Cocaine
  • Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Estradiol / blood
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Menstrual Cycle / physiology*
  • Menstrual Cycle / psychology
  • Progesterone / blood
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Crack Cocaine
  • Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
  • Progesterone
  • Estradiol
  • Cocaine