The lipid composition was affected by growth temperature in Anacystis nidulans, but was not in Anabaena variabilis. A. variabilis contained fatty acids of 18 and 16 carbon atoms, which were localized at 1- and 2-positions, respectively, of the glycerol moiety of lipids. Desaturation of C18 acids was affected by the growth temperature. A. nidulans contained fatty acids of 14, 16 and 18 carbon atoms. Monounsaturated and saturated acids were esterified mainly to 1- and 2-position, respectively. Desaturation and chain length of fatty acids were influenced by the growth temperature. The variations in lipid and fatty acid compositions with the growth temperature are discussed in relation to the growth temperature-dependent shift of thermotropic phase transition temperature of the membrane lipids in the blue-green algae.