Background: Morbidity and mortality of early resection of invasive pulmonary fungal disease in neutropenic patients are still considered prohibitive for surgical treatment.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed results of 28 (16 men, 12 women; mean age, 38.9 years) consecutive neutropenic hematologic patients who had lung resections for suspicion of invasive pulmonary fungal disease.
Results: We did 28 lung resections (19 lobectomies, one bilobectomy, eight single or multiple wedge resections including three video-assisted wedge resections). The disease was proved histologically in 22 (78.6%) cases. Intraoperative difficulties, such as diffuse oozing or mycotic infiltration, and solid postinflammatory adhesions were encountered in 5 (17.8%) and 6 (21.4%) patients respectively. In one case (3.6%) it lead to a major intraoperative hemorrhage. There were no intraoperative deaths, overall 30-day mortality rate was two of 28 (7.1%), overall 90-day mortality rate was seven of 28 (25%), with one death (3.6%) possibly related to surgery. Minor surgery-related complications were seen in ten (35.7%) cases, major surgery-related complications occurred in three (10.7%) cases. Twelve of 22 patients (54.5%) with proven invasive fungal infection are currently alive (mean follow-up, 32.3 months).
Conclusions: Surgery-related complications and mortality are acceptable for this high risk group of patients. Resection should be carried out early for diagnostic as well as therapeutic reasons.