Transcatheter embolization of arteriovenous malformations in Cowden disease

Jpn Circ J. 1999 Apr;63(4):326-9. doi: 10.1253/jcj.63.326.


A patient with Cowden disease and multiple arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that resulted in high output heart failure is described. Cowden disease is a familial syndrome characterized by endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal dysplasia causing benign and malignant tumors of the skin, breast, gastrointestinal tract, and thyroid gland. Our patient had gastrointestinal polyposis, a right renal tumor, a left lung tumor, an adenomatous goiter, and typical dermatologic findings such as facial papules, acral keratosis, gingival papillomatosis and hemangiomas. AVMs were observed in the pelvis, cervical vertebra, liver, and right supraclavicular area. Transcatheter embolization was performed 7 times for the pelvic AVMs, but the effect decreased with repetition and the patient died of heart failure 2 years after the first embolization. The serum levels of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor beta1 were high, suggesting that these angiogenic molecules may play a role in the pathogenesis of AVMs in Cowden disease.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / pathology
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / physiopathology
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / therapy*
  • Embolization, Therapeutic*
  • Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pelvis / blood supply
  • Pelvis / pathology