Twenty-six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women participated in a placebo-controlled study of immunogenicity and safety of multiple doses of MN rgp120 vaccine over the last half of pregnancy. The women had CD4 lymphocyte counts>400/mm3, no AIDS-defining illness and normal pregnancies. Vaccination was well tolerated, with no significant local or systemic reactions in the women and no adverse outcomes in the infants attributable to the vaccine. Vaccination did not alter plasma RNA reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction copy number; moreover, immunization was not associated with changes in CD4 counts or HIV binding and neutralization antibody titers. Infants were followed up until 18 months of age. Five of 26 infants (19%) were HIV infected, with infection occurring in children of both vaccinated and placebo women. Analysis of factors that influence transmission did not disclose associations with immunization status, viral load, CD4 count, or maternal viral neutralization titers.