The safety, immunogenicity, and impact on carriage of a nonvalent pneumococcal vaccine given at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks were examined in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 500 infants in Soweto, South Africa. No serious local or systemic side effects were recorded. Significant antibody responses to all pneumococcal serotypes were observed 4 weeks after the third dose. Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosylribitol phosphate (geometric mean titer, 11.62 microg/mL) and diphtheria (1.39 IU/mL) antibodies were significantly higher in children receiving pneumococcal conjugate, compared with placebo recipients (4.58 microgram/mL and 0.98 IU/mL, respectively). Nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine serotypes decreased in vaccinees at age 9 months (18% vs. 36%), whereas carriage of nonvaccine serotypes increased (36% vs. 25%). Carriage of penicillin-resistant pneumococci (21% vs. 41%) and cotrimoxazole-resistant pneumococci (23% vs. 35%) were significantly reduced 9 months after vaccination, compared with controls.