Background: Experimental and clinical evidence has demonstrated that the establishment of allogeneic chimerism after bone marrow transplantation may provide donor-specific tolerance for solid organ allografts.
Methods: Based on the preliminary results of a clinical trial using nonmyeloablative preparative therapy for the induction of mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism, we treated a 55-year-old woman with end stage renal disease secondary to multiple myeloma with a combined histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-matched bone marrow and renal transplant after conditioning with cyclophosphamide, antithymocyte globulin, and thymic irradiation.
Results: The posttransplant course was notable for early normalization of renal function, the absence of acute graft-versus-host disease, and the establishment of mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism. Cyclosporine, which was the only posttransplant immunosuppressive therapy, was tapered and discontinued on day +73 posttransplant. No rejection episodes occurred, and renal function remains normal on day + 170 posttransplant (14 weeks after discontinuing cyclosporine). Although there is presently no evidence of donor hematopoiesis, there is evidence of an ongoing antitumor response with a recent staging evaluation showing no measurable urine kappa light chains. The patient remains clinically well and is off all immunosuppressive therapy.
Conclusion: This is the first report of the deliberate induction of mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism after a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen to treat a hematological malignancy and to provide allotolerance for a solid organ transplant.