Restorative proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is performed in an increasing number of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Two techniques are currently used to construct an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: (1) a double-stapled anastomosis between the pouch and the anal canal and (2) mucosectomy with a hand-sewn ileoanal anastomosis at the dentate line. Although this procedure is thought to abolish the risk of colorectal adenoma, an increasing number of case reports have been published concerning the development of adenoma at the anastomotic site. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall cumulative risk of developing adenomatous polyps after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and to compare the cumulative risk after either anastomotic technique. A total of 126 consecutive FAP patients undergoing a restorative proctocolectomy were identified from polyposis registries in The Netherlands, Denmark, Italy, Germany, and New York. Life-table analysis was used to calculate the cumulative risk of developing polyps in 97 patients with at least 1 year of endoscopic follow-up (median 66 months, range 12 to 188 months). A double-stapled anastomosis was used in 35 patients, whereas in 62 patients a hand-sewn anastomosis with a mucosectomy was performed. In 13 patients polyps developed at the anastomotic site, four with severe and four with moderate dysplasia. None of the patients developed a carcinoma at the anastomotic site. The cumulative risk of developing a polyp at the anastomotic site was 8% (95% confidence interval 2% to 14%) at 3.5 years and 18% (95% confidence interval 8% to 28%) at 7 years, respectively. The risk of developing a polyp at the anastomotic site within 7 years was 31% for patients with a double-stapled vs. 10% for patients with a hand-sewn anastomosis with mucosectomy (P = 0.03 [log-rank test]). Because FAP patients undergoing a restorative proctocolectomy with either a double-stapled or hand-sewn anastomosis have a substantial risk of developing adenomatous polyps at the anastomotic site, lifelong endoscopic surveillance is mandatory in both groups.