Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a group of inherited disorders of cornification in which progress has recently been made in the identification of pathogenic mechanisms causing the disease. Transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) has been found as a defective gene in a large fraction of patients with lamellar ichthyosis (LI), a severe inherited scaling disorder of the skin. We have previously performed molecular genetic studies of 38Finnish ARCI families and found six different mutations in 13 families of 38 (34%). In this study we compared the molecular genetic alterations with clinical and electron microscopic findings of these patients. Families were classified by electron microscopy in ichthyosis congenita (IC) types I, II, III, IV and a non-defined group. TGM 1 gene mutation was found in all of the IC type II and 1/3 of the IC type 1 families. Although electron microscopy is not always used to classify ARCI patients, it can distinguish groups which are parallel with molecular genetic findings. This finding might be useful in the classification of ARCI patients for further linkage studies. Clinically typical phenotype of the TGM1 mutation carrier includes large, thick, brownish scales, but ichthyosis of some of these patients tends to be milder.