The hypnotic and sedative effects of oleamide (CAS 301-02-0) were studied in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of oleamide showed a time-related inhibition of the locomotor activity with the maximum effect appearing 30 min after drug administration. Oleamide, at the dose range of 43.7-700 mg/kg, dose-dependently inhibited the locomotor activity in mice. Oleamide could promote the hypnotic action induced by sodium pentobarbital. The interaction studies showed that oleamide potentiated the inhibitory effect of diazepam (CAS 439-14-5) and antagonized the stimulatory effect of ethanol, methamphetamine, and caffeine, respectively. These results provide further evidence for the hypnotic and sedative effects of oleamide, suggesting a potential therapeutic usefulness of this fatty acid amide.