Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 49 (6), 377-91

The Glial Scar and Central Nervous System Repair

Affiliations
Review

The Glial Scar and Central Nervous System Repair

J W Fawcett et al. Brain Res Bull.

Abstract

Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) results in a glial reaction, leading eventually to the formation of a glial scar. In this environment, axon regeneration fails, and remyelination may also be unsuccessful. The glial reaction to injury recruits microglia, oligodendrocyte precursors, meningeal cells, astrocytes and stem cells. Damaged CNS also contains oligodendrocytes and myelin debris. Most of these cell types produce molecules that have been shown to be inhibitory to axon regeneration. Oligodendrocytes produce NI250, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and tenascin-R, oligodendrocyte precursors produce NG2 DSD-1/phosphacan and versican, astrocytes produce tenascin, brevican, and neurocan, and can be stimulated to produce NG2, meningeal cells produce NG2 and other proteoglycans, and activated microglia produce free radicals, nitric oxide, and arachidonic acid derivatives. Many of these molecules must participate in rendering the damaged CNS inhibitory for axon regeneration. Demyelinated plaques in multiple sclerosis consists mostly of scar-type astrocytes and naked axons. The extent to which the astrocytosis is responsible for blocking remyelination is not established, but astrocytes inhibit the migration of both oligodendrocyte precursors and Schwann cells which must restrict their access to demyelinated axons.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 420 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback