GLP-1 slows solid gastric emptying and inhibits insulin, glucagon, and PYY release in humans

Am J Physiol. 1999 Sep;277(3):R910-6. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.1999.277.3.R910.


The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on solid gastric emptying and the subsequent release of pancreatic and intestinal hormones. In eight men [age 33.6 +/- 2.5 yr, body mass index 24.1 +/- 0.9 (means +/- SE)], scintigraphic solid gastric emptying during infusion of GLP-1 (0.75 pmol. kg(-1). min(-1)) or saline was studied for 180 min. Concomitantly, plasma concentrations of C- and N-terminal GLP-1, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and peptide YY (PYY) were assessed. Infusion of GLP-1 resulted in a profound inhibition of both the lag phase (GLP-1: 91.5, range 73.3-103.6 min vs. saline: 19. 5, range 10.2-43.4 min) and emptying rate (GLP-1: 0.34, range 0.06-0. 56 %/min vs. saline: 0.84, range 0.54-1.33 %/min; P < 0.01 for both) of solid gastric emptying. Concentrations of both intact and total GLP-1 were elevated to supraphysiological levels. Plasma glucose and glucagon concentrations were below baseline during infusion of GLP-1 in contrast to saline infusion, where concentrations were elevated above baseline (both P < 0.001). The insulin and C-peptide responses were lower during infusion with GLP-1 than with saline (P < 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively). Plasma PYY concentrations decreased below baseline during GLP-1 infusion in contrast to saline, where concentrations were elevated above baseline (P = 0.04). Infusion of GLP-1 inhibits solid gastric emptying with secondary effects on the release of insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon, resulting in lower plasma glucose concentrations. In addition, the release of PYY into the circulation is inhibited by GLP-1 infusion, suggesting a negative feedback of GLP-1 on the function of the L-cell.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Gastric Emptying / drug effects*
  • Gastric Emptying / physiology*
  • Glucagon / blood*
  • Glucagon / pharmacology*
  • Glucagon / physiology
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood*
  • Male
  • Peptide Fragments / pharmacology*
  • Peptide Fragments / physiology
  • Peptide YY / blood*
  • Protein Precursors / pharmacology*
  • Protein Precursors / physiology


  • Insulin
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Protein Precursors
  • Peptide YY
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon