Sleep and chronotype for children in Japan

Percept Mot Skills. 1999 Jun;88(3 Pt 2):1315-29. doi: 10.2466/pms.1999.88.3c.1315.


To investigate the change in sleep-wake habits, Morningness-Eveningness preference, and sleep status by grade, 512 students aged from 6 to 18 years, were tested using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and Sleep Questionnaire. The habitual waking time showed no difference by grade, but the students above Grade 7 reported a significantly later habitual bedtime and had a shorter length of sleep on weekdays than the students below Grade 6. The students above Grade 7 reported a significant difference between habitual and preferred waking times but did not show a difference between habitual and preferred bedtimes. Although the sleep length during weekends became shorter from Grade 1, the sleep length of students above Grade 8 showed a significant difference between the weekdays and weekends; they had more than nine hours of sleep on the weekends. The percentage of students taking a nap during a school lesson significantly increased across Grades 8 to 12. The mean score on the questionnaire decreased across grades and the decrease was significant at Grade 7. Both the habitual and preferred bedtimes and waking times were later from the Morning, Intermediate, to the Evening types across grades. The difference by chronotype in preferred waking time increased for groups from the primary, junior high, to the high school. Also, the sleep lengths both weekdays and weekends decreased from the Morning, Intermediate, to the Evening type for all grades. We suggested that the delay of sleep phase, reduction of sleep length, increased daytime napping, and transition to Evening type were remarkably represented around Grade 7.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child Behavior*
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Male
  • Periodicity*
  • Quality of Life
  • Sex Factors
  • Sleep*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Wakefulness*