No clinical risk factors for recurrence of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy in kidney transplants have been defined. This is a single-centre retrospect analysis of recurrence in 104 first kidney transplant patients with biopsy-verified IgA nephropathy. Fifty patients had living donors. All but an identical twin were treated with cyclosporin A. The median follow-up time was 5 yr. Graft biopsies had been obtained from 35 grafts later than 6 months after transplantation, due to deteriorating graft function or gross proteinuria. Thirteen biopsies showed mesangial glomerulopathy proliferative in eleven cases with IgA deposits. Recurrence caused failure of six grafts. Eleven grafts with recurrence were from living donors (p = 0.005). No specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) was identified as a risk factor. Known duration of original disease until end-stage renal failure was significantly shorter in patients with recurrence (median 5 yr, range 0-25 yr) compared with those without (median of 10 yr, range of 0-37 yr) (p = 0.015). Cumulative graft survival was not reduced in living versus cadaveric donor recipients.