Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of macular pattern dystrophy (MPD) in maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD), a new subtype of diabetes mellitus that cosegregates with a mutation of mitochondrial DNA (i.e., the substitution of guanine for adenine at position 3243 of leucine transfer RNA) and to report the clinical characteristics of MPD.
Design: Prospective cohort study.
Participants: Forty-six patients from 29 families with an adenine-to-guanine mutation of mitochondrial DNA were recruited from a French collaborative multicenter study. Thirty-five patients had MIDD, 8 were asymptomatic children of MIDD patients, and 3 had MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes). The 33 MIDD patients with diabetes were matched for diabetes duration and gender with 33 patients with "common" type-2 diabetes to compare the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in both series.
Methods: All patients had a full ophthalmologic examination and fundus photographs.
Main outcome measures: The presence and severity of MPD and DR were assessed in each patient.
Results: Thirty MIDD patients (85.7%) of 35 exhibited bilateral MPD characterized by linear pigmentation surrounding the macula and optic disc. In 24 of these 30 patients, visual acuity was 20/25 or more in both eyes. The prevalence of DR was 6% in MIDD patients with diabetes versus 15% for patients with common type-2 diabetes (a difference that was not significant, P = 0.23). The fundus of each of the eight asymptomatic children was normal. MPD was present in one of the three cases of MELAS.
Conclusion: The prevalence of MPD in MIDD is high. Its detection may be helpful for the diagnosis of this new subtype of diabetes, for which specific treatments may be proposed.