Objective: We sought to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for vaginal trichomoniasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected pregnant Congolese women and its relationship to pregnancy outcomes.
Study design: We performed a nested case-control study of 215 infected and 206 uninfected mothers who responded to questionnaires, underwent sexually transmitted disease testing (including culture for trichomoniasis shortly after delivery), and underwent assessment of infant outcomes. Maternal variables and birth outcomes were assessed according to presence or absence of trichomoniasis and human immunodeficiency virus.
Results: Trichomoniasis was present in 18.6% of human immunodeficiency virus-positive and 10.2% of human immunodeficiency virus-negative women, respectively (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.6), and was significantly associated with low birth weight (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.5). In multivariate analyses trichomoniasis remained associated with low birth weight, and adjustments were made for other risk factors associated with low birth weight.
Conclusion: These findings suggest an association between trichomoniasis and low birth weight independent of human immunodeficiency virus infection and other risk factors. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of antenatal screening and treatment for trichomoniasis on pregnancy outcomes.