Retropositional parasitism of SINEs on LINEs: identification of SINEs and LINEs in elasmobranchs

Mol Biol Evol. 1999 Sep;16(9):1238-50. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026214.


Some previously unidentified short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) and long interspersed repetitive element (LINEs) were isolated from various higher elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) and characterized. These SINEs, members of the HE1 SINE family, were tRNA-derived and were widespread in higher elasmobranches. The 3'-tail region of this SINE family was strongly conserved among elasmobranchs. The LINEs, members of the HER1 LINE family, encoded an amino acid sequence similar to that encoded by the chicken CR1 LINE family, and they contained a strongly conserved 3'-tail region in the 3' untranslated region. This tail region of the HER1 LINE family was almost identical to that of the HE1 SINE family. Thus, the HE1 SINE family and the HER1 LINE family provide a clear example of a pair of SINEs and LINEs that share the same tail region. Conservation of the secondary structures of the tail regions, as well as of the nucleotide sequences, between the HE1 SINE family and HER1 LINE family during evolution suggests that SINEs utilize the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of LINEs through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 3'-tail region. A discussion is presented of the parasitism of SINEs on LINEs during the evolution of these retroposons.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 3' Untranslated Regions
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA / chemistry
  • DNA / genetics
  • DNA Primers / genetics
  • Elasmobranchii / genetics*
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nucleic Acid Conformation
  • Phylogeny
  • Retroelements / genetics*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Sharks / genetics
  • Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements / genetics*
  • Species Specificity
  • Time Factors


  • 3' Untranslated Regions
  • DNA Primers
  • Retroelements
  • DNA

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AB027716
  • GENBANK/AB027717
  • GENBANK/AB027718
  • GENBANK/AB027719
  • GENBANK/AB027720
  • GENBANK/AB027721
  • GENBANK/AB027722
  • GENBANK/AB027723
  • GENBANK/AB027724
  • GENBANK/AB027725
  • GENBANK/AB027726
  • GENBANK/AB027727
  • GENBANK/AB027728
  • GENBANK/AB027729
  • GENBANK/AB027730
  • GENBANK/AB027731
  • GENBANK/AB027732
  • GENBANK/AB027733
  • GENBANK/AB027734
  • GENBANK/AB027735
  • GENBANK/AB027736
  • GENBANK/AB027737
  • GENBANK/AB027738
  • GENBANK/AB027739
  • GENBANK/AB027740
  • GENBANK/AB027741