Extrahepatic tissue distribution of the mRNAs for the four human CYP2Cs (2C8, 2C9, 2C18, and 2C19) was examined in kidney, testes, adrenal gland, prostate, brain, uterus, mammary gland, ovary, lung, and duodenum. CYP2C mRNAs were detected by RT-PCR using specific primers for each individual CYP2C. CYP2C8 mRNA was detected in the kidney, adrenal gland, brain, uterus, mammary gland, ovary, and duodenum. CYP2C9 mRNA was detected in the kidney, testes, adrenal gland, prostate, ovary, and duodenum. CYP2C18 mRNA was found only in the brain, uterus, mammary gland, kidney, and duodenum and CYP2C19 mRNA was found only in the duodenum. Immunoblot analysis of small intestinal microsomes detected both 2C9 and 2C19 proteins. In addition, genomic clones for CYP2C8 were sequenced, and long-distance PCR was performed to determine the complete gene structure. CYP2C8 spanned a 31 kb region. Comparative analysis of the 2.4 kb upstream region of CYP2C8 with CYP2C9 revealed two previously unidentified transcription factors sites, C/EBP and HPF-1, and the latter might be involved in hepatic expression. Although CYP2C8 has been shown to be phenobarbital inducible, neither a barbiturate-responsive regulatory sequence (a Barbie box) nor a phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) was found within the upstream region analyzed.