Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) consists of autosomal recessive disorders of cortisol biosynthesis, which in the majority of cases result from 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Another enzymatic defect causing CAH is 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency. In both forms, the resulting excessive androgen secretion causes genital virilization of the female fetus. For over 10 yr female fetuses affected with 21-hydroxylase deficiency have been safely and successfully prenatally treated with dexamethasone. We report here the first successful prenatal treatment with dexamethasone of an affected female with 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency CAH. The family had two girls affected with 1beta-hydroxylase deficiency born with severe ambiguous genitalia who were both homozygous for the T318M mutation in the CYP11B1 gene, which codes for the 11beta-hydroxylase enzyme. In the third pregnancy in this family, the female fetus was treated in utero by administering dexamethasone to the mother, starting at 5 weeks gestation. The treatment was successful, as the newborn was not virilized and had normal female external genitalia. A second family with two affected sons was also studied in preparation for a future pregnancy. We report a novel 1-bp deletion in codon 394 (R394delta1) in the CYP11B1 gene in this family.