Purpose: To measure vitreous levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in the eyes of patients with retinal detachment (RD) due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and to determine whether the levels of these mediators correlated with clinical parameters of disease.
Methods: Undiluted vitreous specimens were collected from 50 eyes of 48 patients undergoing vitrectomy for traction RD due to PDR (21 specimens) and recurrent RD due to PVR (19 specimens). Control vitreous specimens were obtained from patients undergoing macular hole repair (10 specimens). The levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were measured in each sample by specific enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays.
Results: Vitreous levels of sICAM-1 were significantly increased in vitreous specimens from both PVR (median +/- SD; 12.0 +/- 76.3 ng/ml; P < 0.01) and PDR (8.4 +/- 24.0 ng/ml; P < 0.01) when compared to vitreous from eyes with macular holes (0. 3 +/- 4.2 ng/ml). Vitreous levels of sVCAM-1 were significantly increased in both PVR (36.5 +/- 255.2 ng/ml; P < 0.001) and PDR (26. 2 +/- 93.5 ng/ml; P < 0.01) when compared to control vitreous (17.7 +/- 7.8 ng/ml). The vitreous levels of sICAM-1 were higher in cases of PDR which developed recurrent proliferative disease (P < 0.01) and recurrent RD (P = 0.01), whereas the levels of sICAM-1 in PVR and sVCAM-1 in PDR and PVR did not significantly correlate with these clinical parameters.
Conclusions: Soluble forms of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are increased in the vitreous cavity of patients with RD due to PDR or PVR, reflecting the inflammatory nature of these conditions and suggesting a possible role for these mediators in the pathogenesis of proliferative retinal disease. The vitreous levels of these sCAMs at the time of surgery may serve as a marker of inflammation, but their specific levels do not predict the likelihood of recurrent proliferation or surgical anatomic success in most cases of PVR and PDR.