Antagonistic signaling by Caronte, a novel Cerberus-related gene, establishes left-right asymmetric gene expression

Cell. 1999 Sep 3;98(5):573-83. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80045-8.


Left-right asymmetry is initiated during chick embryogenesis in small domains near Hensen's node. Subsequently, broad asymmetric gene expression domains are established in the lateral plate mesoderm, ultimately determining the directionality of morphogenetic events. The transfer of asymmetric information from the node to the lateral plate is mediated by Caronte (Car), a novel member of the Cerberus/Dan gene family, which induces targets by antagonizing symmetrically expressed BMP signals. In addition, BMP antagonism by Car induces asymmetric expression of Lefty in the midline, preventing spread of left-sided signals to the contralateral side.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Avian Proteins*
  • Body Patterning
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Chick Embryo
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Left-Right Determination Factors
  • Mice
  • Models, Biological
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Morphogenesis
  • Nodal Protein
  • Proteins / chemistry
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Trans-Activators*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism
  • Xenopus / embryology
  • Xenopus Proteins


  • Avian Proteins
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • LEFTY1 protein, human
  • Left-Right Determination Factors
  • NODAL protein, human
  • Nodal Protein
  • Nodal protein, mouse
  • Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Xenopus Proteins
  • caronte protein, Gallus gallus
  • cer1 protein, Xenopus