The thioredoxin (TRX) system, composed of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form), TRX, and TRX reductase (TRXR), has multiple biologic functions via thiol-mediated redox control. In this study, we investigated the relationship between intracellular TRXR levels and cellular sensitivity to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP). HeLa, a human cervical carcinoma cell line, cultured with CDDP showed a time- and dose-dependent reduction of intracellular TRXR activity, which was well correlated with the decrease in cell viability after exposure to CDDP. In a cell-free system, CDDP was found to directly inactivate the reduced form of purified human TRXR. The CDDP-resistant variants of HeLa cells, established by continuous exposure to CDDP, exhibited an increased expression and activity of TRXR as well as TRX compared with the parental cells. In addition, sodium selenate, an inhibitor of TRXR, was found to increase the susceptibility to CDDP in the CDDP-resistant cells. Moreover, the HeLa cells transfected with an antisense TRXR RNA expression vector to reduce the intracellular enzyme activity displayed an enhanced sensitivity to CDDP. Taken together with previous reports on TRX, these results indicate the possible involvement of TRXR as well as TRX in the cellular sensitivity and resistance to CDDP.