Bladder. Risk and prognostic factors--a pathologist's perspective

Urol Clin North Am. 1999 Aug;26(3):481-92. doi: 10.1016/s0094-0143(05)70196-8.


Morphology remains a power tool to help predict the risk of recurrence, progression, and even response to therapy in bladder cancer. Nevertheless, more work is needed to refine and standardize criteria and terminology. Novel molecular tools may reveal prognostic factors, but these techniques must be compared with standard morphologic and clinical markers by performing multivariate analysis in a prospective fashion.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Risk
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / classification
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Urothelium / pathology