Serum antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are effective in preventing or ameliorating invasive disease caused by this human pathogen. Polysaccharide and conjugate (saccharide covalently linked to protein carrier) vaccines have been developed which stimulate the production of such antibodies. The polysaccharide-specific antibody concentrations in the sera of vaccine-naïve adults and toddlers on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 following immunisation with one dose of the Hib polysaccharide vaccine (PRP, polyribosylribitol phosphate) or an oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine (HbOC, HibTITER) were determined. Antibody responses occurred within 7 days of immunisation with the maximum response usually occurring 14 days post-immunisation, irrespective of vaccine or subject age. In this small study, a significant transient decline in pre-existing antibodies was observed only in the groups receiving the polysaccharide vaccine and not in the groups receiving HbOC vaccine. Because of the small magnitude of antigen-specific antibody decline and its transient nature, it is unlikely that this observation has clinical significance.