Background and study aims: The advantage of endoscopic surveillance and treatment of duodenal polyposis is still unclear in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the progression patterns of duodenal polyposis and the results of treatment.
Patients and methods: In our institution, the 98 FAP patients included in the prospective follow-up study underwent at least one upper endoscopic examination, carried out with few exceptions, by a single surgeon endoscopist. The progression patterns of duodenal polyposis, the cumulative risk of severe duodenal polyposis and duodenal cancer as well as the results of surgical treatment were evaluated during a median follow-up of 11 years.
Results: Duodenal adenomas were detected in 78 patients corresponding to a cumulative lifetime incidence of 97%. The stage of adenomatosis progressed in 52 (73 %) of the 71 patients who underwent repeated endoscopies. The cumulative risks of stage IV adenomatosis and duodenal carcinoma were 30% and 4 %, respectively. Excisional treatment through open duodenotomy resulted in significant stage regression but was followed by new progression. In all patients the median interval for progression by one stage varied from 4 to 11 years.
Conclusions: Duodenal adenomas almost invariably occur in FAP; endoscopic surveillance is thus warranted to anticipate severe progression and malignant transformation. Excisional surgical treatment can, however, give only transient stage reduction.