Dopamine replacement therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease is plagued by the emergence of abnormal involuntary movements known as L-dopa-induced dyskinesias. It has been demonstrated that yohimbine can reduce L-dopa-induced dyskinesia in the MPTP-lesioned primate model of Parkinson's disease. Yohimbine is, among other things, an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist. In this study, we demonstrate that the selective and potent alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist idazoxan reduces L-dopa-induced dyskinesia in the MPTP-lesioned marmoset model of Parkinson's disease. The alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonists rauwolscine and yohimbine also reduce L-dopa-induced dyskinesia. Furthermore, we demonstrate that coadministration of idazoxan with L-dopa can provide an anti-parkinsonian action more than twice the length of that seen with L-dopa alone. However, idazoxan as a monotherapy displayed no anti-parkinsonian actions. We propose that idazoxan in combination with L-dopa may provide a novel approach to the treatment of Parkinson's disease that will not only reduce the dyskinetic side effects, but extend the anti-parkinsonian actions of L-dopa. Idazoxan, as an adjunct to dopamine replacement, may prove useful in the treatment of parkinsonian patients at all stages of disease progression.