The purpose of this prospective study was to determine whether an association exists between foot structure and the development of musculoskeletal overuse injuries. The study group was a well-defined cohort of 449 trainees at the Naval Special Warfare Training Center in Coronado, California. Before beginning training, measurements were made of ankle motion, subtalar motion, and the static (standing) and dynamic (walking) characteristics of the foot arch. The subjects were tracked prospectively for injuries throughout training. We identified risk factors that predispose people to lower extremity overuse injuries. These risk factors include dynamic pes planus, pes cavus, restricted ankle dorsiflexion, and increased hindfoot inversion, all of which are subject to intervention and possible correction.