Subjective well-being associated with improved survival in smoking and hypertensive men

J Cardiovasc Risk. 1999 Aug;6(4):257-61. doi: 10.1177/204748739900600411.


Background: Previous studies have shown that people who rate their health as poor have reduced life expectancy. The purpose of the present study was to determine to what extent self-rated perception of health modifies the survival rates in men at risk from tobacco smoking or hypertension.

Design: A prospective population-based study.

Methods: The baseline examination took place in 1969 and study participants were followed until 1993. The study cohort comprised 632 men born in 1914 and residing in Malmö, Sweden. Self-rated health (good, average or poor) was assessed in a structured interview in 1969. Mortality data were obtained from the Swedish National Bureau of Statistics. Subjects were stratified for smoking and hypertension.

Results: After adjustments for a number of medical risk factors and physical activity, health self-rated as good was significantly associated with reduced mortality in smoking (adjusted relative risk 0.63, confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 0.84), hypertensive (adjusted relative risk 0.56, CI 0.34 to 0.91) and normotensive (adjusted relative risk 0.66, CI 0.49 to 0.91) men.

Conclusion: We conclude that subjective well-being modifies the survival rates in hypertensive or smoking men.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Status*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / mortality*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quality of Life*
  • Registries
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Smoking / mortality*
  • Survival Rate
  • Sweden / epidemiology