We have reported breaches of glia limitans (GL)-basal lamina (BL) complex with protruding neuroglial tissue in Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) fetus brain and suggested that some basic deficits in the GL-BL complex may have a pivotal role in formation of micropolygyria in FCMD. We therefore investigated the cerebral GL-BL complex in seven FCMD cases (12-27 years of age), in three cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (17-25 years of age) and in two non-neurological controls (28 and 33 years of age). The frontal lobe cortex was examined immunocytochemically using antibodies against collagen type IV and laminin in each case, and ultrastructurally in an adult case of FCMD. In FCMD, the BL of the cortical surface was frequently breached with protruding neural tissue that ultrastructurally showed frequent synapses, neurites that had parallel arranged microtubules, and astrocytic processes. The outermost surface of this tissue was only partly lined by a BL. In the region of the gyral adhesion of micropolygyria, the perivascular space of the apparently entrapped meningeal blood vessels was occupied by neuroglial tissue, which is assumed to have invaded through the occasionally seen breaches of the perivascular GL-BL complex. Electron microscopy of the intruding tissue showed frequent synapses, microtubule-containing neurites and astrocytic processes. No breached GL-BL complex was found in any of the non-FCMD cases. These findings indicate that in FCMD, the cerebral GL-BL complex continues to have a crucial deficit with resulting breaches through which neuroglial tissue protrudes, promoting adhesion of the adjacent cerebral gyri during brain development before and after birth.