Carcinogenicity of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in the rat prostate and induction of invasive carcinomas by subsequent treatment with testosterone propionate

Cancer Lett. 1999 Sep 1;143(2):217-21. doi: 10.1016/s0304-3835(99)00128-7.


2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) at 400 ppm in the diet for 52 weeks was found to induce non-invasive microscopic carcinomas in the ventral prostate of the treated rats, in addition to colon and mammary carcinomas. The current experimental data demonstrate that only a 20-week period of PhIP treatment is sufficient for induction of ventral carcinomas and that long-term pharmacological dosing with testosterone propionate which applied through a Silastic tube embedded in the subcutis after PhIP treatment can induce invasive carcinomas in the anterior prostate and seminal vesicles. Thus, PhIP may provide the basis for a good two stage carcinogenesis model for investigation of prostate carcinogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carcinogens / administration & dosage
  • Carcinogens / toxicity*
  • Drug Synergism
  • Imidazoles / administration & dosage
  • Imidazoles / toxicity*
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / chemically induced*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred F344
  • Testosterone / administration & dosage*
  • Time Factors


  • Carcinogens
  • Imidazoles
  • Testosterone
  • 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine