Fluorescent proteins from nonbioluminescent Anthozoa species

Nat Biotechnol. 1999 Oct;17(10):969-73. doi: 10.1038/13657.


We have cloned six fluorescent proteins homologous to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria. Two of these have spectral characteristics dramatically different from GFP, emitting at yellow and red wavelengths. All the proteins were isolated from nonbioluminescent reef corals, demonstrating that GFP-like proteins are not always functionally linked to bioluminescence. The new proteins share the same beta-can fold first observed in GFP, and this provided a basis for the comparative analysis of structural features important for fluorescence. The usefulness of the new proteins for in vivo labeling was demonstrated by expressing them in mammalian cell culture and in mRNA microinjection assays in Xenopus embryos.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cnidaria / chemistry*
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Luminescent Proteins / chemistry
  • Luminescent Proteins / genetics
  • Luminescent Proteins / isolation & purification*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Recombinant Proteins / chemistry
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Proteins / isolation & purification
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Species Specificity
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence
  • Xenopus


  • DNA, Complementary
  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Recombinant Proteins

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF168419
  • GENBANK/AF168420
  • GENBANK/AF168421
  • GENBANK/AF168422
  • GENBANK/AF168423
  • GENBANK/AF168424