Mentor functions and outcomes: a comparison of men and women in formal and informal mentoring relationships

J Appl Psychol. 1999 Aug;84(4):529-50. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.84.4.529.


The authors examined the effects of the type of mentoring relationship and the gender composition of the relationship on mentoring functions and career outcomes reported by 352 female and 257 male protégés. Protégés of informal mentors viewed their mentors as more effective and received greater compensation than protégés of formal mentors. Protégés with informal mentors also received more career outcomes than nonmentored individuals, but no significant differences were found between nonmentored and formally mentored individuals. The gender composition of the relationship affected mentoring functions and outcomes, and protégé gender interacted with the type of relationship to affect mentoring functions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Counseling
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interpersonal Relations*
  • Male
  • Mentors / psychology*
  • Personal Satisfaction