Recent physiological observations in which stimuli with opposite contrast signs in the two eyes have been used (anticorrelated stereograms) show that these stimuli evoke responses in primary visual cortex which are the reverse of responses to correlated stimuli. Psychophysical investigations reveal no such reversals: reversed-contrast bars with crossed disparities are seen in front of those with uncrossed disparities. For anticorrelated random-dot stereograms human subjects perceive no depth at all, except at low dot densities. However, these human studies were carried out with stimuli that differed in several ways from those used in physiological studies. We therefore reexamined psychophysical responses using stimuli similar to those used for physiological recordings. Our results confirm the previous findings: there is no evidence of a reversed depth sensation for bar stereograms (crossed disparities are never seen behind uncrossed disparities), and subjects are unable to detect depth in anticorrelated random-dot stereograms at the densities used for the physiological recordings. The discrepancy between the psychophysical data and the responses of single neurons in primary visual cortex suggests that further processing outside area V1 is necessary to provide the signals that produce the sensation of stereoscopic depth.