Background: HuOKT3gamma1(Ala-Ala) is a genetically-engineered derivative of the parental murine OKT3 monoclonal antibody, in which the six complementarity-determining regions have been grafted within a human IgG1 mAb, and whose C(H)2 region has been altered by site-directed mutagenesis to alter FcR-binding activity, thereby eliminating T cell activation properties. This report describes the results of a phase I trial of huOKT3gamma1(Ala-Ala) treatment of acute renal allograft rejection.
Methods: Acute renal allograft rejection in kidney and kidney-pancreas transplant recipients was treated with huOKT3gamma1(Ala-Ala). huOKT3gamma1(Ala-Ala) dosing consisted of daily 5- or 10-mg doses adjusted initially to achieve target levels of 1000 ng/ml.
Results: A total of seven patients, five kidney transplant and two kidney-pancreas transplant recipients, were treated with the monoclonal antibody for first rejection episodes. Corticosteroids (500 mg i.v. Solumedrol) were given 2 hr before the first huOKT3gamma1(Ala-Ala) dose only. Banff classification of treated rejections were the following: grade I, 1 patient, grade IIA, 1 patient, grade IIB, 4 patients, and grade III, 1 patient. Median time from transplant to rejection was 15 days, and median follow up 12 months (range 10-17 months). HuOKT3gamma1(Ala-Ala) therapy was given for 10.1+/-2.5 days, and mean total dose was 76+/-27 mg. Rejection was reversed in five of seven patients, and recurrent rejection was observed in one patient. Serum creatinine values peaked on day 1 of huOKT3gamma1(Ala-Ala) therapy, and thereafter demonstrated a progressive decline. Rejection reversal (return of creatinine to baseline) occurred at a median of 4 days and a mean of 4.1+/-2 days. Renal allograft biopsies obtained during huOKT3gamma1(Ala-Ala) therapy provided evidence of rapid rejection reversal. Patient and graft survival were both 100%. First dose reactions were minimal, and anti-OKT3 antibodies were not detected. Elevations in serum IL-10, but not IL-2 levels were observed after the first huOKT3gamma1(Ala-Ala) dose. Marked reductions in circulating CD2+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells were observed after the first huOKT3gamma1(Ala-Ala) dose, followed by a slow progressive return of cell counts toward pretreatment values. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a half-life of 142+/-32 hr.
Conclusions: HuOKT3gamma1(Ala-Ala) possesses the ability to reverse vigorous rejection episodes in kidney and kidney-pancreas transplant recipients, and in comparison to murine OKT3, possesses minimal first dose reactions and does not seem to induce antibodies that bind the OKT3 idiotype. These results support the conduct of additional clinical trials with the huOKT3gamma1(Ala-Ala) antibody.