We have reviewed published reports on patients with segmental aneusomy for chromosome 1p36 to help geneticists and other health professionals in the recognition of this emerging chromosomal syndrome. Terminal deletions of the short arm of chromosome 1 are associated with hypotonia and developmental delay (usually severe), growth abnormalities (growth retardation, microcephaly, obesity), and craniofacial dysmorphism with a large anterior fontanelle, prominent forehead, deep set eyes, flat nasal bridge and midface hypoplasia, ear asymmetry, a pointed chin, and orofacial clefting. Minor cardiac malformations, cardiomyopathy, seizures, and ventricular dilatation are the more common additional findings. Sensorineural hearing loss and variable ophthalmological anomalies have also been frequently observed. Although the deletions can be detected by high resolution cytogenetic studies, confirmation by fluorescence in situ hybridisation is required in most cases. The majority of deletions are maternally derived. Molecular characterisation of 1p36 deletions has been undertaken in several cases, and it is likely that this condition is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome.