Distant liaisons: long-range enhancer-promoter interactions in Drosophila

Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999 Oct;9(5):505-14. doi: 10.1016/s0959-437x(99)00002-7.


Transcriptional activation of many developmentally regulated genes is mediated by proteins binding to enhancer sequences located several kilobases from the promoter. Existing models for how activator proteins function do not adequately explain long-range activation. Recent experiments in Drosophila on insulators that block enhancer-promoter interactions, interchromosomal activation, and mutants deficient in long-range activation are consistent with models in which facilitator factors that function between enhancers and promoters bring them into physical proximity of each other.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology
  • Drosophila / genetics*
  • Drosophila Proteins*
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic*
  • Homeodomain Proteins / physiology
  • Nuclear Proteins / physiology
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*


  • Chi protein, Drosophila
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • z protein, Drosophila