Renal organic anion transporter OAT-K1 was stably transfected in MDCK cells and examined for its transport characteristics and membrane localization. OAT-K1 mediated both uptake and efflux of methotrexate in the apical membranes. Immunoblotting showed that the apparent molecular mass of the expressed OAT-K1 was 50 kDa, which was comparable to that found in the rat renal brush-border membranes. The OAT-K1-mediated methotrexate transport was significantly inhibited in the presence of several organic anions such as folate and sulfobromophthalein. These findings suggest that OAT-K1 mediates bidirectional methotrexate transport across the apical membranes, and may be involved in the renal handling of methotrexate.