Objective: The objective of this study is to correlate high-resolution inspiratory and expiratory CT findings with pulmonary function results in older children and adults who have bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Subjects and methods: High-resolution inspiratory and expiratory CT of the thorax was performed prospectively on 26 patients (16 male, 10 female) with a clinical history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The median age was 10 years old (range, 5-18 years). High-resolution CT during inspiration was scored for areas of decreased density and evidence of interstitial lung disease; expiratory CT was scored for air trapping. Findings were correlated with pulmonary function measurements and clinical history.
Results: Twenty-four (92%) of the 26 patients had abnormal CT findings. Of these 24, 22 had reticular opacities and 18 had areas of architectural distortion. Twenty patients had areas of relatively decreased density. In 24 patients, air trapping was seen on expiratory CT. Abnormal pulmonary function correlated significantly (p < .05) with abnormal decreases in density, air trapping on expiratory CT, and architectural distortion.
Conclusion: Abnormal findings on inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution CT of older children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia include scarring and air trapping with architectural distortion. The correlation between these findings and physiologic evidence of air trapping and obstructive lung disease was statistically significant.