Clinical and radiographic evaluation of early loaded free-standing dental implants with various coatings in beagle dogs

J Prosthet Dent. 1999 Oct;82(4):428-35. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3913(99)70029-6.


Statement of problem: Immediate loading of implants may be a predictable treatment alternative when cross-arch stabilization with a fixed provisional is observed.

Purpose: This study investigated the effect of immediate masticatory loading on the stability of single-standing dental implants with 4 different surfaces.

Material and methods: A total of 40 solid screw implants (diameter 3.3 mm, length 8 mm) were placed in the mandibles of 4 beagle dogs. Test groups included 3 hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings of titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS) implants. Implants with TPS alone served as control. Gold crowns were inserted 2 days after implant placement and the dogs were immediately put on a hard food diet. Implants were followed for 6 months after loading. Clinical and radiographic assessments of implants were performed at time of crown insertion (baseline) and after 1, 3, and 6 months of loading. The Periotest instrument was used for mobility measurements and radiographs were obtained for evaluation of peri-implant radiolucency and measurement of crestal bone changes.

Results: Of 40 implants, 39 displayed no discernible mobility, corresponding to successful clinical function. Peri-implant radiolucencies were absent for all but the 1 mobile implant. The reduction in crestal bone levels adjacent to the implants between baseline and 6 months was statistically significant (P <.0001). No statistically significant differences in crestal bone level changes over time were found between the various coatings demonstrating the absence of a treatment effect initiated by the surface coatings.

Conclusion: In this study in beagle dogs, immediate masticatory loading of single-standing dental implants did not jeopardize tissue integration, provided the implants had excellent primary stability.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible*
  • Crowns / statistics & numerical data
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous* / methods
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous* / statistics & numerical data
  • Diagnosis, Oral / instrumentation
  • Diagnosis, Oral / statistics & numerical data
  • Dogs
  • Durapatite*
  • Female
  • Mastication
  • Percussion / instrumentation
  • Percussion / statistics & numerical data
  • Pilot Projects
  • Prognosis
  • Radiography, Dental / statistics & numerical data
  • Random Allocation
  • Time Factors
  • Titanium*


  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • Durapatite
  • Titanium