The aim of this work is to study the effects of chitosan on rat knee cartilages. 0.2 ml of 0.1% chitosan solution pH = 6.9 were injected inside rat knees articular cavity. One, three and six weeks after injection, histological and histomorphometric studies were performed on undecalcified samples embedded in polymethylmetacrylate. Results show that after 1 and 6 weeks: (i) chitosan slows significantly (P < 0.005) the decrease in epiphyseal cartilage thicknesses and (ii) increases significantly articular cartilage chondrocyte densities (P < 0.002). However chitosan solution induces a proliferation of fibrous tissue with abundant fibroblasts, fibrocytes and monocytes inside the joint and this proliferation is still present after 6 weeks. This study suggests that chitosan could act on the growth of epiphyseal cartilage and wound healing of articular cartilage.