Different prevalences of reflux oesophagitis and hiatus hernia among dyspeptic patients in England and Singapore

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999 Aug;11(8):845-50. doi: 10.1097/00042737-199908000-00006.


Objective: To compare the frequency of reflux oesophagitis and hiatus hernia in dyspeptic patients in England with that in Singapore.

Design: Demographic, clinical and endoscopic findings in consecutive dyspeptic patients seen in England and Singapore by the same clinician were compared. The association of various factors with the occurrence of hiatus hernia and oesophagitis was analysed by logistic regression.

Setting: District general hospital in England and university hospital in Singapore.

Participants: The English series comprised 212 consecutive patients, and 173 patients were seen in Singapore.

Results: Reflux oesophagitis and hiatus hernia were found in 52 (25%) and 50 (49%) of the English patients, and 12 (6%) and 7 (4%) of the Singapore patients, respectively (P<0.005 in each case). Race, body mass index and age were independently associated with hiatus hernia (odds ratios 3.07, 1.08 and 1.04, respectively). The risk factors for oesophagitis were race, sex, body mass index and age (odds ratios 4.04, 2.37, 1.11 and 1.02, respectively). If hiatus hernia was included in the analysis, the risk factors were hiatus hernia, sex, race and body mass index (odds ratios 20.10, 3.07, 2.81 and 1.09, respectively).

Conclusions: Reflux oesophagitis and hiatus hernia are more common in English dyspeptic patients compared to those in Singapore. The most important risk factor for both oesophagitis and hiatus hernia is race.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index
  • Dyspepsia / etiology*
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
  • England / epidemiology
  • Esophagitis, Peptic / complications
  • Esophagitis, Peptic / diagnosis
  • Esophagitis, Peptic / epidemiology*
  • Esophagitis, Peptic / ethnology
  • Female
  • Hernia, Hiatal / complications
  • Hernia, Hiatal / diagnosis
  • Hernia, Hiatal / epidemiology*
  • Hernia, Hiatal / ethnology
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Racial Groups
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Risk Factors
  • Singapore / epidemiology
  • Smoking