Referral revisited: community financing schemes and emergency transport in rural Africa

Soc Sci Med. 1999 Dec;49(11):1473-87. doi: 10.1016/s0277-9536(99)00201-4.


Referral between first and second levels of care in rural African health systems is an extremely complex problem. Problems that have plagued the process of referral include poor service quality, low availability of trained personnel, inadequate supplies of drugs and medical diagnostic equipment and inadequate communication infrastructure. In this paper, the authors analyse the role of transport costs in the utilization of referral and how community health insurance schemes can help reduce the economic burden of transport costs, thereby improving referral utilization and health outcomes. Following the introduction, the authors provide a conceptual framework of the individual-, household- and community-level factors that affect referral in the rural African context, with particular emphasis on the role of the time and monetary costs of transport and the potential role of community risk-sharing schemes. The paper then presents a detailed case study from Kenya where a community has been experimenting with a health insurance scheme which provides emergency transport for emergency referral. Data from the past eight years of experience in northern Kenya suggests that support for the insurance scheme has depended on the reliability of the health system, as well as the seasons and various external problems, such as political interference, drought and insecurity. Conclusions drawn support the idea of community financing schemes for transport, not merely as a life-saving strategy in remote and resource-poor health infrastructures, but also as a means to help build trust in the health system itself and thus improve sustainability through local institutional support.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Community Networks*
  • Health Services Research*
  • Humans
  • Insurance*
  • Kenya
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Referral and Consultation* / economics
  • Rural Population
  • Transportation of Patients / economics*