Although nosocomial transmission of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and its effect on morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised adults are well recognized, few studies have applied molecular techniques to differentiate nosocomial from community-acquired infections. Between January and April 1997, an outbreak of HRSV occurred among adult patients in a leukemia/lymphoma ward. Among 45 hospitalized patients undergoing bronchoscopy for investigation of acute respiratory illness, 8 were identified with HRSV infection. One infected patient developed symptoms before admission and was thought to be the index case. However, subsequent sequencing of 7 HRSV isolates identified 2 distinct genotypes, GA5 (1 case) and GB3 (6 cases). The 6 GB3 isolates could be further differentiated into 2 strains with identical nucleotide sequences that differed from each other and from 14 community HRSV isolates. Instead of a single nosocomial outbreak of HRSV, multiple introductions of HRSV likely occurred with distinct lines of nosocomial transmission.