Changing trends of histopathology in childhood nephrotic syndrome

Am J Kidney Dis. 1999 Oct;34(4):646-50. doi: 10.1016/S0272-6386(99)70388-4.


This study was conducted to analyze the trend of histopathologic subtypes in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in a homogenous racial group in India population. A prospective analysis of 400 consecutive children with INS was performed. Kidney biopsies were performed according to standard indications. Steroids were administered following the Arbeitsgeminschaft fur Padiatrische Nephrologie protocol. Cyclophosphamide was administered to children in the frequent-relapser, steroid-dependent, and steroid-nonresponder categories. Of the various histopathologic subtypes, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) was the most common (87 of 222 subtypes; 39.1%). Children who underwent biopsy between July 1992 and December 1996 (group B, n = 157) were compared with our initial published data of biopsies performed between January 1990 and June 1992 (group A, n = 65), with similar indications for biopsy in both groups. The incidence of FSGS was significantly greater in biopsies performed in the recent period (group B, 47% versus group A, 20%; P = 0.0002). The different clinical and biochemical parameters were also analyzed to differentiate FSGS from the other 2 subtypes. Hypertension (P = 0. 005), renal insufficiency at presentation (P = 0.001), and steroid resistance (P = 0.0006) were significantly greater in children with FSGS. On follow-up (mean, 5.4 years), children with FSGS were at a significantly greater risk for developing renal insufficiency (P = 0. 0001). We conclude there is a shift toward an increasing prevalence of FSGS over the years in the Indian population. This trend has immense therapeutic and prognostic significance.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Biopsy
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Drug Resistance
  • Female
  • Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental / drug therapy
  • Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental / pathology
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage
  • India
  • Infant
  • Kidney Glomerulus / pathology*
  • Male
  • Nephrotic Syndrome / drug therapy
  • Nephrotic Syndrome / pathology*
  • Prednisolone / administration & dosage
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies


  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Prednisolone