Sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is extremely common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although the underlying mechanisms linking these 2 conditions remain to be better defined, it is likely that multiple factors are involved. We report an individual with ESRD with severe SAHS that resolved after kidney transplantation. The improvement in SAHS paralleling the effective treatment of ESRD suggests the pathogenesis involves an unstable breathing pattern, possibly caused by an altered metabolic state, uremia, and changes in volume status. The possibility that elevations in cytokine levels could be involved also is discussed and deserves further attention.