Purpose: Psychogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (PLUTD) is composed of two syndromes; psychogenic frequency-urgency syndrome (PFUS) and psychogenic urinary retention (PUR). We evaluated the patho-physiology of PFUS and PUR, and explored the different pathogenesis in these syndromes.
Material and methods: Forty five patients with PLUTD, consisting of 23 patients with PFUS and 22 patients with PUR were investigated by using the psychological tests: CMI (Cornell Medical Index) and TEG (Todai's Egogram), a quantitative perspiration test in 45 females (23 patients with PFUS and 22 patients with PUR), and simultaneous measurements of voiding cysto-urethrography and urodynamic studies using the Life-Tech 6 channel polygraph in 35 patients (17 patients with PFUS and 18 patients with PUR).
Results: The prevalence in ages revealed two peaks, 20 years and 50 to 60 years. Over 25% of them had pyuria more than 10/hpf of WBC. Peak flow rate measured by uroflowmetry showed normal range in PFUS group and decreased in PUR group. The functional vesical volume was less than 100 ml in most patients with PFUS. Residual urine in PUR group was significantly greater. Capacity of the PFUS group were able to hold over 400 ml of contrast instilled through the urethral catheter, despite increased desire to void. Over 15% of the study group with PFUS showed uninhibited systolic contraction of detrusor (> 15 cm H2O) during filling phase. The measurement value of urodynamic parameters demonstrated that a periodic follow-up survey of the upper urinary tract should be performed because of the low compliance bladder in the patients with PLUTD. During voiding phase, the women with PFUS had a tendency to be divided into two groups, hypercontractile or acontractile detrusor. The voiding cysto-urethrography (VCUG) showed a tendency of bladder neck opening on patients with PFUS during filling phase. Most of PLUTD cases demonstrated a round to triangle shape on vesical configuration, which led to a spastic condition of detrusor muscle. We attempted to measure the quantitative perspiration using 3 kinds of loading tests; respiratory, arithmetic and psychological load. In the psychological loading test, we asked 98 questions about their daily lives including occupation, living condition, family relationship and sexual activities. Arithmetic loading test consisted of counting in reverse, subtraction and multiplication. The quantitative perspiration rate resulted in a "positive" in many patients with PFUS. Respiration loading test was performed to measure the respiration volume during 3 large inhales. Most patients with PUR tested within the normal range for respiration except for those patients with decreased or no perspiration during the psychiatric loading test. These results may reflect the psychological elements including suppression and subconscious defense mechanism. Neurosis which was diagnosed as having type III to type IV of the Cornell Medical Index was demonstrated in less than under 40% of patients with PFUS and more than 55% patients with PUR. There was no significant trend or difference between PFUS and PUR detected from Todai's Egogram.
Conclusions: Due to the reflection of many psychological responses, it is necessary to investigate from various examinations including psychological, autonomical and classical urological studies for accurate diagnosis of PLUTD.