The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and patient tolerability of two antibiotic regimens for the treatment of brucellosis: rifampicin 600 mg/day and doxycycline 200 mg/day for 45 days (group 1), versus rifampicin 600 mg/day and ciprofloxacin 1 g/day for 30 days (group 2). Forty patients were diagnosed with brucellosis based on clinical and microbiological findings. The two groups were comparable regarding age and sex distribution. The average number of days without fever and symptoms was lower in group 2 patients than in group 1 patients (mean+/-SD: 3.85+/-1.98 for group 1 vs. 2.78+/-1.03 for group 2, P=0.044). During the 1-year follow-up period, three (15%) patients in group 2 and two (10%) patients in group 1 had clinical relapses; these rates were not significantly different. Ciprofloxacin and rifampicin treatment for brucellosis is as effective as the standard regimen of doxycycline and rifampicin and offers the advantage of a shorter duration of treatment.